Английский язык для начинающих. Урок 36

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Урок 36


Sequence of Tenses (согласование времён)


В английском языке существует явление, которого нет в русском языке, — согласование времён (Sequence of Tenses).

sequence [‘si:kw?ns] (грам.) — согласование, последовательность

Правило согласования времён гласит: если сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени, то сказуемое придаточного изъяснительного предложения должно также стоять в одном из прошедших времён.

Напомню, что дополнительное придаточное предложение отвечает на вопрос что?:

Он сказал, (что?) что живёт в Лондоне. Я знаю, (что?) что у них двое детей.

Он сказал, я знал — главные предложения;

что живёт в Лондоне, что у них двое детей — придаточные изъяснительные предложения.

Выбор времени сказуемого придаточного предложения зависит от соотношения времён сказуемых главного и придаточного предложений. Можно говорить о трёх временных соотношениях.

1. Действия, выраженные сказуемыми главного и придаточного предложений, являются одновременными. При этом в дополнительном придаточном предложении Present Indefinite изменяется на Past Indefinite, a Present Continuous — на Past Continuous.

Давайте разбираться. Возьмём два предложения — английское и русское:

Не lives in London. — Он живёт в Лондоне.

Глагол английского предложения стоит в форме Present Indefinite, глагол русского — в форме настоящего времени.

А теперь оба эти предложения сделаем придаточными изъяснительными при главном предложении, глагол которого стоит в прошедшем времени:

Он сказал, что живёт в Лондоне. — Не said that he lived in London.

Как видите, сказуемое русского придаточного предложения сохранило форму настоящего времени (живёт), а вот сказуемое английского придаточного предложения, подчиняясь правилу согласования времён, изменило форму Present Indefinite на Past Indefinite.

Ещё пример:

She likes apples. — Она любит яблоки.

I knew that she liked apples.Я знал, что она любит яблоки.

knew [nju:] — Past Indefinite глагола to know [nou] знать

И ещё:

My brother is sleeping.Мой брат спит.

Теперь сделаем это предложение придаточным при главном предложении с глаголом в прошедшем времени:

I knew that my brother was sleeping.Я знал, что мой брат спит.

Подчиняясь правилу согласования времён, глагол-сказуемое придаточного изъяснительного предложения изменяет форму Present Continuous на Past Continuous.

2. Действие, выраженное сказуемым придаточного предложения, предшествует действию главного предложения; в этом случае в придаточном изъяснительном предложении Past Indefinite и Present Perfect изменяются на Past Perfect.

John came on Wednesday. (Past Indefinite) — Джон приехал в среду.

He has bought a new flat. (Present Perfect) Он купил новую квартиру.

Теперь сделаем эти предложения придаточными:

I was said that John had come on Wednesday.Мне сказали, что Джон приехал в среду.

Не said that he had bought a new flat.Он сказал, что купил новую квартиру.

3. Действие, выраженное сказуемым придаточного предложения, относится к будущему времени по сравнению с действием сказуемого главного предложения.

В этом случае Future Indefinite изменяется на Future Indefinite-in-the-Past, Future Continuous — на Future Continuous-in-the-Past, Future Perfect — на Future Perfect-in-the-Past, Future Perfect Continuous — на Future Perfect Continuous-in-the-Past.

Все времена Future-in-the-Past образуются путём механической замены вспомогательных глаголов shall на should [?ud], a will на would [wud]:

а) Не will write his report in the library. (Future Indefinite) — Он будет писать доклад в библиотеке.

I knew that he would write his report in the library. (Future Indefinite-in-the-Past) — Я знал, что он будет писать доклад в библиотеке.

б) Не will be writing his report in the library from 10 till 12. (Future Continuous) — Он будет писать доклад в библиотеке с 10 до 12.

I knew that he would be writing his report from 10 till 12. (Future Continuous-in-the-Past) Я знал, что он будет писать доклад с 10 до 12.

в) Не will have written his report by Monday. (Future Perfect) — Он напишет доклад к понедельнику.

Не said that he would have written his report by Monday. (Future Perfect-in-the-Past) Он сказал, что напишет доклад к понедельнику.

г) By Monday he will have been writing his report for two weeks. (Future Perfect Continuous) К понедельнику будет две недели, как он пишет доклад.

I was said that by Monday he would have been writing his report for two weeks. (Future Perfect Continuous-in-the-Past) Мне сказали, что к понедельнику будет две недели, как он пишет доклад.

Прочитайте следующие предложения с придаточными изъяснительными. Обратите внимание на отсутствие явления согласования времён, так как глагол главного предложения стоит в настоящем времени:

Не says that he lives in Paris.Он говорит, что живёт в Париже.

Paris [‘p?ris] Париж

Не says that he lived in Paris. Он говорит, что жил в Париже.

Не says that he will live in Paris.Он говорит, что будет жить в Париже.

Теперь поставим глагол главного предложения в форме Past Indefinite. В этом случае начнёт действовать правило согласования времён:

Не said that he lived in Paris.Он сказал, что живёт в Париже.

Не said that he had lived in Paris.Он сказал, что жил в Париже.

Не said that he would live in Paris. — Он сказал, что будет жить в Париже.


Домашнее задание


Прочитайте следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык с помощью словаря.

1. Не said that he played football every Sunday.

2. He said that she had already visited the exhibition.

3. She knew that she was very tired.

4. We were said that the meeting would take place on Tuesday.

5. John said that he would be present at the meeting.

6. She said that she would take books from the library.

7. I said that I had read the book before.

8. I hoped that you would meet him.

9. He said that he had already carried out his research work.

10. They said that they were glad to see us.

11. They say that they are glad to see us.

12. She said that she had taken part in the competition.

13. She said that she would take part in the competition.


ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ


Прежде чем мы перейдём к рассмотрению сложных тем английской грамматики, проверим с помощью чтения и закрепим на практике всё, что мы выучили на предыдущих уроках. Это совершенно необходимая составляющая изучения иностранного языка, ведь теория без практики мало что значит.

В этом блоке представлены выдержки из произведений моего любимого писателя Сомерсета Моэма. Эти тексты значительно сложнее тех, которые вы читали после 26 урока. Незнакомые слова вам придётся находить в англо-русском словаре. Это не так просто, но этому обязательно надо учиться. Перевод сложных словосочетаний и предложений дается в сносках.

Looking back on eighty years

William Somerset Maugham

William [‘wilj?m]

Somerset [‘s?m?s?t]

Maugham [m?:m]

In my long life I have seen many changes in our habits and customs. The world, that I entered when at the age of eighteen I became a medical student, was a world that knew nothing of planes, motor-cars, cinemas, radio or telephone. When I was still at school a lecturer came to Canterbury and showed us boys a new machine which reproduced the human voice. It was the first gramophone. The world that I entered was a world that warmed itself with coal fires, lit itself by gas and paraffin lamps, and looked upon a bathroom as a luxury.

On Sundays the muffin man made his rounds ringing his bell, and the people came out of their door to buy muffins for afternoon tea.


…was a world that knew nothing of planes, motor-cars, cinemas, radio or telephone был миром, который ничего не знал о самолётах, автомобилях, кинематографе, радио или телефоне.

Canterbury ([‘k?nt?b?ri] — г. Кентербери

…warmed itself обогревал себя

…lit itself — освещал себя

…and looked upon a bathroom as a luxury и считал ванную роскошью

On Sundays the muffin man made his rounds… По воскресеньям продавец горячей сдобы объезжал…


It was a very cheap world. When I entered the medical college attached to St. Thomas Hospital I took some furnished rooms for which I paid 18 shillings a week. My landlady provided me with a solid breakfast before I went to the hospital and high tea when I came back at half past six, and the two meals cost me about 12 shillings a week.

I had enough money to go to the theatre at least once a week. The pit to which I went was not the thing it is now. There were no queues. The crowd collected at the door, and when the door opened there was a struggle to get a good place. But that was part of the fun.

Travelling was cheap, too, in those days. When I was twenty I went to Italy for the six weeks of the Easter vacation.

I did my practical work at St. Thomas Hospital. I was a bad medicai student, because my heart was not in it. I wanted, I had always wanted, to be a writer, and in the evening, after my tea, I wrote and read.

I wrote a novel, called «Liza of Lambeth», sent it to publisher, and it was accepted. It appeared during my last year at the hospital and had something of a success. I felt I could give up medicine and make writing my profession. So three days after passing the final examinations which gave me my medical qualifications, I set out for Spain to learn Spanish and write another book. Looking back now, after these years, and knowing the terrible difficulties of making a living bv writing. I realize that I was taking fearful risk. I gave up the medical profession with relief, but I do not regret the five years which I spent at the hospital.

They taught me all I know about human nature. People in pain, people in fear of death, do not try to hide anything from their doctors.

The next ten years were very hard. I wrote several novels, a number of plays which publishers returned to me.


When I entered the medical college attached to St. Thomas Hospital. Когда я поступил в медицинский колледж при больнице Святого Томаса.

…a week в неделю

high tea сытный ужин с чаем

The pit to which I went was not the thing it is now. Партер, куда я обычно ходил, не имел ничего общего с нынешним

…had something of a success имела некоторый успех

…making a living by writing — зарабатывать на жизнь литературным трудом

People in fear of death, do not try to hide anything from their doctors. — Люди, страдающие от боли, люди, напуганные смертью, не пытаются что-либо скрывать от своих врачей.


Then I had a bit of luck. The manager of the Court Theatre read a play of mine, called “Lady Frederick”. It ran for fifteen months.

I had four plays running in London at the same time. Nothing of the kind had ever happened before, and the papers wrote much about it. I may say without immodesty, I was the talk of the town. One of the students at St. Thomas Hospital asked the eminent surgeon with whom I had worked whether he remembered me.

“Yes, I remember him quite well,” he said. “Very sad. Very sad. One of our failures, I’m afraid”.


Then I had a bit of luck. Потом мне повезло.

Court Theatre придворный театр

It ran for fifteen months. Она шла пятнадцать месяцев.

Nothing of the kind had ever happened before… Ничего подобного раньше не происходило.

…I was the talk of the town.…моё имя было у всех на устах.

…whether he remembered me. …помнит ли он меня.


A friend in need


A friend in need — часть пословицы “A friend in need is a friend indeed”«Друг познаётся в беде».

For thirty years now I have been studying my fellowmen. I do not know very much about them, and vet I suppose it is by the face that for the most part we judge the persons we meet. We draw our conclusions from the shape of the jaw, the look in the eyes, the contour of the mouth. I shrug my shoulders when people tell me that their first impressions of a person are always right. I find that the longer I know people the more they puzzle me. Mv oldest friends are iust those of whom I can say that I don’t know anything about them.


…and yet I suppose it is by the face that for the most part we judge the persons we meet.…и всё же я думаю, что чаще всего мы судим о людях, которых встречаем, по их лицам.

We draw our conclusions…Мы делаем выводы…

I find that the longer I know people the more they puzzle me.Я убеждаюсь, что чем больше я узнаю людей, тем больше они озадачивают меня.

My oldest friends are just those of whom I can say that I don’t know anything about them.Как раз о самых старых своих друзьях я и могу
сказать, что ничего о них не знаю.


These thoughts have occurred to me because I read in this morning’s paper that Edward Burton had died at Kobe (портовый город в Японии). Не was a merchant and he had been in business in Japan for many years. I knew him very little, but he interested me because once he gave me a great surprise. Unless I had heard the story from his own lips. I should never have believed that he was capable to do such an action. He was a tiny little fellow, very slender, with white hair, a red face much wrinkled, and blue eyes. I suppose he was about sixty when I knew him. He was always neatly dressed, in accordance with his age.

Though his officers were in Kobe, Burton often came down to Yokohama (портовый город в Японии). I once spent a few days there, waiting for a ship, and I was introduced to him at the British Club. We played bridge together. He did not talk very much, but what he said was sensible. He was popular at the club, and afterwards, when he had gone, they described him as one of the best.

It happened that we were both staying at the «Grand Hotel», and the next day he asked me to dine with him. I met his wife and two daughters. I think the chief thing that struck me about Burton was his kindness. There was something very pleasing in his mild blue eyes. His voice was gentle; you could not imagine that he could raise it in anger. He could tell with point a good story, and in his youth he had been an athlete. He was a rich man and he had made every penny himself. I suppose one thing that made vou like him was that he was so small and frail.


Kobe ( [‘koubi:] — Кобе (город)

…once he gave me a great surprise. …однажды он очень удивил меня.

Unless I had heard the story from his own lips I should never have believed that he was capable to do such an action. — Если бы я не услышал эту историю лично от него, я бы никогда не поверил, что он способен совершить такое.

Не was always neatly dressed, in accordance with his age. Он всегда был аккуратно одет — в соответствии со своим возрастом.

Yokohama ( [jouk?’ha:m?] — Йокогама (город)

…when he had gone…когда он умер.

I think the chief thing that struck me about Burton was his kindness. Я думаю, главное, что поразило меня в Бартоне, была его доброта.

…he had made every penny himself он заработал каждый пенни сам.

…one thing that made you like himодно, что вызывало к нему симпатию.


One afternoon I was sitting in the lounge of the «Grand Hotel». Burton came into the lounge. He seated himself in the chair next to me.

“What do vou sav to a little drink?”

He ordered two glasses of wine. As the boy brought them, a man passed along the street outside, and seeing me, waved his hand.

“Do you know Turner?” said Burton.

“I’ve met (I have met) him at the club. He is an immigrant”.

“Yes, I believe he is. There are a lot of immigrants here”.

“He plays bridge well”.

“As a rule they all play well. There was a fellow here last year, he was the best bridge plaver I ever met. I suppose you never met him in London. Lenny Burton he called himself. I believed he’d belonged (he had belonged) to some very good clubs”.

“No, I don’t believe I remember the name”.

“He was quite a remarkable player. I used to plav with him a lot. He was in Kobe for some time”.

Burton drank his wine.

“It’s rather a funny story”, he said. “He wasn’t a bad chap. I liked him. He was always well-dressed and smart-looking. He was handsome, with curly hair and pink-and-white cheeks. He drank too much. He made his money by cardplaying. He won a good deal of mine. I know that”.

Burton smiled. I knew from my own experience that he could lose money at bridge with a good grace.

“I suppose that is why he came to me when he went broke, that and the fact that he was a namesake of mine. He came to see me in my office one day and asked me for a job. I was rather surprised. He told me that he had no money and he wanted to work. I asked him how old he was”.


He seated himself... — Он уселся…

“What do you say to a little drink?» He откажетесь что-нибудь выпить?”

…he was the best bridge player I ever met.…он был самым лучшим игроком в бридж, которого я когда-либо встречал.

I used to play with him a lot. — Обычно я много играл с ним.

Не made his money by cardplaying.Он зарабатывал деньги игрой в карты.

Не won a good deal of mine… Он много выиграл у меня…

with a good grace — достойно

I suppose that is why he came to me when he went broke... — Я полагаю, поэтому он и пришёл ко мне, когда проигрался…

…and the fact that he was a namesake of mine. …и то, что он был моим тёзкой.


“Thirty-five,” he said.

I couldn’t help laughing.

“I’m afraid I can’t do anything for you just now,” I said. “Come back and see me in another thirty-five years, and I’ll see what I can do.”

He didn’t move. He became pale. He hesitated for a moment and then told me that he had no luck at cards for some time. He had not a penny. He could not pay the hotel bill and they would not give him any more credit. If he could not get something to do, he would have to commit suicide.

I looked at him. He had been drinking more than usual and he looked fifty.

“Well, isn’t there anything you can do except play cards?” I asked him.

“I can swim”, he said. “I swam for the university”.

“I was a pretty good swimmer myself when I was a young man”, I said. Suddenly I had an idea.

Pausing in his story, Burton turned to me.

“Do you know Kobe?” he asked.

“No,” I said.

“Then you don’t know the Shioya Club. When I was a young man, I swam from there round the beacon and landed at the creek of Tarumi. It’s over three miles and it’s rather difficult on account of the currents round the beacon.”

Well, I told my young namesake about it and said to him that if he would do it, I should give him a job.


I couldn’t help laughing.Я не мог не засмеяться.

Не became pale. Он побледнел.

…he had no luck at cards for some time.…последнее время ему не везло в картах.

If he could not get something to do, he would have to commit suicide. — Если он не сможет найти хоть какую-то работу, ему придётся покончить с собой.

…he looked fifty. …он выглядел на пятьдесят.

Pausing in his story, Burton turned to me. Сделав паузу в рассказе, Бартон повернулся ко мне.

It’s over three miles and it’s rather difficult on account of the currents round the beacon.Это более трёх миль, и это довольно трудно из-за сильных течений вокруг маяка.


“I am not in very good condition,” he answered.

I did not say anything, I shrugged my shoulders. He looked at me for a moment and then he nodded.

“All right,” he said. “When do you want me to do it?”

I looked at my watch. It was just after ten.

“The swim should not take you much over an hour and a quarter. I’ll drive round to the creek at half past twelve and meet you. I’ll take you back to the club to dress and then we’ll have lunch together”.

We shook hands. I wished him good luck and he left me. I had a lot of work to do and I only just managed to get to the creek at half past twelve. But I needn’t have hurried, he never turned up.

“Did he funk at the last moment?” I asked.

“No, he didn’t. He started all right. But of course he had ruined his health by drink. The currents round the beacon were more than he could manage. We did not get the body for about three days”.

I did not say anything for a moment. Then I asked Burton a question.

“When you offered him that job, did you know that he would be drowned?”

He looked at me with those kind eyes of his. He rubbed his chin with his hand.

“Well, I hadn’t got vacancy in my office at the moment”.


“When do you want me to do it?”“Когда вы хотите, чтобы я это сделал?”

“The swim should not take you much over an hour and a quarter.” Плаванье не заберёт больше чем час с четвертью.

I had a lot of work to do… У меня было много работы…

But I needn’t have hurried, he never turned up.Но мне можно было бы и не спешить, он так и не появился.

The currents round the beacon were more than he could manage.Течения вокруг маяка были настолько сильными, что он не смог с ними справиться.

…I hadn’t got vacancy in my office at the moment.…у меня на то время не было вакансии в офисе.


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